ADA/EASD: General recommendations for choosing antihyperglycemic therapy in type 2 diabetes1

Individualization of treatment is the cornerstone of success
  • Recommendations should be considered within the context of a patient’s needs, preferences, and tolerances
Several patient-specific factors should be considered, including:
  • Patient attitude and expected treatment efforts
  • Risks potentially associated with hypoglycemia or other adverse events
  • Disease duration
  • Life expectancy
  • Comorbidities

ADA and EASD General Recommendations for Choosing Antihyperglycemic Therapy in Type 2 Diabetes

American Diabetes Association Diabetes Care, American Diabetes Association, 2015. Copyright and all rights reserved. Material from this publication has been used with the permission of American Diabetes Association.

ADA = American Diabetes Association; EASD = European Association for the Study of Diabetes; SU = sulfonylurea; TZD = thiazolidinedione; DPP-4-i = dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor; SGLT2-i = sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor; GLP-1-RA = glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist.

Antihyperglycemic therapy in type 2 diabetes: general recommendations. Potential sequences of antihyperglycemic therapy for patients with type 2 diabetes are displayed, the usual transition being vertical, from top to bottom (although horizontal movement within therapy stages is also possible, depending on the circumstances). In most patients, begin with lifestyle changes; metformin monotherapy is added at, or soon after, diagnosis, unless there are contraindications. If the A1C target is not achieved after approximately 3 months, consider 1 of the 6 treatment options combined with metformin: an SU, TZD, DPP-4-i, SGLT2-i, GLP-1-RA, or basal insulin. (The order in the chart, not meant to denote any specific preference, was determined by the historical availability of the class and route of administration, with injectables to the right and insulin to the far right.) Drug choice is based on patient preferences as well as various patient, disease, and drug characteristics, with the goal being to reduce glucose concentrations while minimizing side effects, especially hypoglycemia. The figure emphasizes drugs in common use in the U.S. and/or Europe. Rapid-acting secretagogues (meglitinides) may be used in place of SUs in patients with irregular meal schedules or who develop late postprandial hypoglycemia on an SU. Other drugs not shown (α-glucosidase inhibitors, colesevelam, bromocriptine, pramlintide) may be tried in specific situations (where available), but are generally not favored because of their modest efficacy, the frequency of administration, and/or limiting side effects. In patients intolerant of, or with contraindications for, metformin, consider initial drug from other classes depicted under “Dual therapy” and proceed accordingly. In this circumstance, while published trials are generally lacking, it is reasonable to consider 3-drug combinations that do not include metformin. Consider initiating therapy with a dual combination when A1C is ≥9% (≥75 mmol/mol) to more expeditiously achieve target. Insulin has the advantage of being effective where other agents may not be and should be considered a part of any combination regimen when hyperglycemia is severe, especially if the patient is symptomatic or if any catabolic features (weight loss, any ketosis) are evident. Consider initiating combination injectable therapy with insulin when blood glucose is ≥300–350 mg/dL (≥16.7–19.4 mmol/L) and/or A1C ≥10%–12% (≥86–108 mmol/mol). Potentially, as the patient’s glucose toxicity resolves, the regimen can be subsequently simplified.

aConsider initial therapy at this stage when A1C is ≥9% (≥75 mmol/mol); bConsider initial therapy at this stage when blood glucose is ≥300–350 mg/dL (≥16.7–19.4 mmol/L) and/or A1C ≥10%–12% (≥86–108 mmol/mol), especially if patient is symptomatic or if catabolic features (weight loss, ketosis) are present, in which case basal insulin + mealtime insulin is the preferred initial regimen; cUsually a basal insulin (eg, NPH, glargine, detemir, degludec).

NPH = neutral protamine hagedorn.

Reference: 1. Inzucchi SE, Bergenstal RM, Buse JB, et al. Management of hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes, 2015: a patient-centered approach: update to a position statement of the American Diabetes Association and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2015;38(1):140–149.

Important Information

JANUVIA is indicated as an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

JANUVIA should not be used in patients with type 1 diabetes or for the treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis.

JANUVIA has not been studied in patients with a history of pancreatitis. It is unknown whether patients with a history of pancreatitis are at increased risk of developing pancreatitis while taking JANUVIA.

Selected Important Risk Information About JANUVIA® (sitagliptin) tablets

JANUVIA is contraindicated in patients with a history of a serious hypersensitivity reaction to sitagliptin, such as anaphylaxis or angioedema.

There have been postmarketing reports of acute pancreatitis, including fatal and nonfatal hemorrhagic or necrotizing pancreatitis, in patients taking JANUVIA. After initiating JANUVIA, observe patients carefully for signs and symptoms of pancreatitis. If pancreatitis is suspected, promptly discontinue JANUVIA and initiate appropriate management. It is unknown whether patients with a history of pancreatitis are at increased risk of developing pancreatitis while taking JANUVIA.

Assessment of renal function is recommended prior to initiating JANUVIA and periodically thereafter. A dosage adjustment is recommended in patients with moderate or severe renal insufficiency and in patients with end-stage renal disease requiring hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis. Caution should be used to ensure that the correct dose of JANUVIA is prescribed.

There have been postmarketing reports of worsening renal function, including acute renal failure, sometimes requiring dialysis. A subset of these reports involved patients with renal insufficiency, some of whom were prescribed inappropriate doses of sitagliptin.

When JANUVIA was used in combination with a sulfonylurea or insulin, medications known to cause hypoglycemia, the incidence of hypoglycemia was increased over that of placebo. Therefore, a lower dose of sulfonylurea or insulin may be required to reduce the risk of hypoglycemia.

The incidence (and rate) of hypoglycemia based on all reports of symptomatic hypoglycemia were: 12.2% (0.59 episodes/patient-year) for JANUVIA 100 mg in combination with glimepiride (with or without metformin), 1.8% (0.24 episodes/patient-year) for placebo in combination with glimepiride (with or without metformin), 15.5% (1.06 episodes/patient-year) for JANUVIA 100 mg in combination with insulin (with or without metformin), and 7.8% (0.51 episodes/patient-year) for placebo in combination with insulin (with or without metformin).

There have been postmarketing reports of serious hypersensitivity reactions in patients treated with JANUVIA, such as anaphylaxis, angioedema, and exfoliative skin conditions including Stevens-Johnson syndrome. Onset of these reactions occurred within the first 3 months after initiation of treatment with JANUVIA, with some reports occurring after the first dose. If a hypersensitivity reaction is suspected, discontinue JANUVIA, assess for other potential causes for the event, and institute alternative treatment for diabetes.

Angioedema has also been reported with other dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors. Use caution in a patient with a history of angioedema with another DPP-4 inhibitor because it is unknown whether such patients will be predisposed to angioedema with JANUVIA.

There have been postmarketing reports of severe and disabling arthralgia in patients taking DPP-4 inhibitors. The time to onset of symptoms following initiation of drug therapy varied from 1 day to years. Patients experienced relief of symptoms upon discontinuation of the medication. A subset of patients experienced a recurrence of symptoms when restarting the same drug or a different DPP-4 inhibitor. Consider DPP-4 inhibitors as a possible cause for severe joint pain and discontinue drug if appropriate.

There have been no clinical studies establishing conclusive evidence of macrovascular risk reduction with JANUVIA or with any other antidiabetic drug.

In clinical studies, the adverse reactions reported, regardless of investigator assessment of causality, in ≥5% of patients treated with JANUVIA as monotherapy and in combination therapy and more commonly than in patients treated with placebo, were upper respiratory tract infection, nasopharyngitis, and headache.

Before prescribing JANUVIA® (sitagliptin) tablets, please read the accompanying Prescribing Information. The Medication Guide also is available.

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Selected Important Risk Information About JANUVIA® (sitagliptin) tablets

JANUVIA is contraindicated in patients with a history of a serious hypersensitivity reaction to sitagliptin, such as anaphylaxis or angioedema.

There have been postmarketing reports of acute pancreatitis, including fatal and nonfatal hemorrhagic or necrotizing pancreatitis, in patients taking JANUVIA. After initiating JANUVIA, observe patients carefully for signs and symptoms of pancreatitis. If pancreatitis is suspected, promptly discontinue JANUVIA and initiate appropriate management. It is unknown whether patients with a history of pancreatitis are at increased risk of developing pancreatitis while taking JANUVIA.

Assessment of renal function is recommended prior to initiating JANUVIA and periodically thereafter. A dosage adjustment is recommended in patients with moderate or severe renal insufficiency and in patients with end-stage renal disease requiring hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis. Caution should be used to ensure that the correct dose of JANUVIA is prescribed.

There have been postmarketing reports of worsening renal function, including acute renal failure, sometimes requiring dialysis. A subset of these reports involved patients with renal insufficiency, some of whom were prescribed inappropriate doses of sitagliptin.

When JANUVIA was used in combination with a sulfonylurea or insulin, medications known to cause hypoglycemia, the incidence of hypoglycemia was increased over that of placebo. Therefore, a lower dose of sulfonylurea or insulin may be required to reduce the risk of hypoglycemia.

The incidence (and rate) of hypoglycemia based on all reports of symptomatic hypoglycemia were: 12.2% (0.59 episodes/patient-year) for JANUVIA 100 mg in combination with glimepiride (with or without metformin), 1.8% (0.24 episodes/patient-year) for placebo in combination with glimepiride (with or without metformin), 15.5% (1.06 episodes/patient-year) for JANUVIA 100 mg in combination with insulin (with or without metformin), and 7.8% (0.51 episodes/patient-year) for placebo in combination with insulin (with or without metformin).

There have been postmarketing reports of serious hypersensitivity reactions in patients treated with JANUVIA, such as anaphylaxis, angioedema, and exfoliative skin conditions including Stevens-Johnson syndrome. Onset of these reactions occurred within the first 3 months after initiation of treatment with JANUVIA, with some reports occurring after the first dose. If a hypersensitivity reaction is suspected, discontinue JANUVIA, assess for other potential causes for the event, and institute alternative treatment for diabetes.

Angioedema has also been reported with other dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors. Use caution in a patient with a history of angioedema with another DPP-4 inhibitor because it is unknown whether such patients will be predisposed to angioedema with JANUVIA.

There have been postmarketing reports of severe and disabling arthralgia in patients taking DPP-4 inhibitors. The time to onset of symptoms following initiation of drug therapy varied from 1 day to years. Patients experienced relief of symptoms upon discontinuation of the medication. A subset of patients experienced a recurrence of symptoms when restarting the same drug or a different DPP-4 inhibitor. Consider DPP-4 inhibitors as a possible cause for severe joint pain and discontinue drug if appropriate.

There have been no clinical studies establishing conclusive evidence of macrovascular risk reduction with JANUVIA or with any other antidiabetic drug.

In clinical studies, the adverse reactions reported, regardless of investigator assessment of causality, in ≥5% of patients treated with JANUVIA as monotherapy and in combination therapy and more commonly than in patients treated with placebo, were upper respiratory tract infection, nasopharyngitis, and headache.

Before prescribing JANUVIA® (sitagliptin) tablets, please read the accompanying Prescribing Information. The Medication Guide also is available.