FDA-approved as a biosimilar to Remicade® (infliximab)

Learn more about RENFLEXIS

 
Information for health care professionals on the use of RENFLEXIS
Information for patients about their treatment with RENFLEXIS
Learn about patient access for RENFLEXIS
Selected Safety Information for RENFLEXISTM (infliximab-abda)

WARNING: SERIOUS INFECTIONS and MALIGNANCY

SERIOUS INFECTIONS

Patients treated with infliximab products are at increased risk for developing serious infections that may lead to hospitalization or death [see Warnings and Precautions and Adverse Reactions]. Most patients who developed these infections were taking concomitant immunosuppressants such as methotrexate or corticosteroids.

RENFLEXIS should be discontinued if a patient develops a serious infection or sepsis. Reported infections include:

  • Active tuberculosis, including reactivation of latent tuberculosis. Patients with tuberculosis have frequently presented with disseminated or extrapulmonary disease. Patients should be tested for latent tuberculosis before RENFLEXIS use and during therapy.1,2 Treatment for latent infection should be initiated prior to RENFLEXIS use.
  • Invasive fungal infections, including histoplasmosis, coccidioidomycosis, candidiasis, aspergillosis, blastomycosis, and pneumocystosis. Patients with histoplasmosis or other invasive fungal infections may present with disseminated, rather than localized, disease. Antigen and antibody testing for histoplasmosis may be negative in some patients with active infection. Empiric anti-fungal therapy should be considered in patients at risk for invasive fungal infections who develop severe systemic illness.
  • Bacterial, viral and other infections due to opportunistic pathogens, including Legionella and Listeria.

The risks and benefits of treatment with RENFLEXIS should be carefully considered prior to initiating therapy in patients with chronic or recurrent infection.

Patients should be closely monitored for the development of signs and symptoms of infection during and after treatment with RENFLEXIS, including the possible development of tuberculosis in patients who tested negative for latent tuberculosis infection prior to initiating therapy.

MALIGNANCY

Lymphoma and other malignancies, some fatal, have been reported in children and adolescent patients treated with TNF blockers, including infliximab products [see Warnings and Precautions].

Postmarketing cases of hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma (HSTCL), a rare type of T-cell lymphoma, have been reported in patients treated with TNF blockers including infliximab products. These cases have had a very aggressive disease course and have been fatal. Almost all patients had received treatment with azathioprine or 6-mercaptopurine concomitantly with a TNF-blocker at or prior to diagnosis. The majority of reported cases have occurred in patients with Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis and most were in adolescent and young adult males.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

RENFLEXIS at doses > 5 mg/kg should not be administered to patients with moderate to severe heart failure. In a randomized study evaluating infliximab in patients with moderate to severe heart failure (New York Heart Association [NYHA] Functional Class III/IV), infliximab treatment at 10 mg/kg was associated with an increased incidence of death and hospitalization due to worsening heart failure.

RENFLEXIS should not be re-administered to patients who have experienced a severe hypersensitivity reaction to infliximab products. Additionally, RENFLEXIS should not be administered to patients with known hypersensitivity to inactive components of the product or to any murine proteins.

WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

Serious Infections

Patients treated with infliximab products are at increased risk for developing serious infections involving various organ systems and sites that may lead to hospitalization or death.

Opportunistic infections due to bacterial, mycobacterial, invasive fungal, viral, or parasitic organisms including aspergillosis, blastomycosis, candidiasis, coccidioidomycosis, histoplasmosis, legionellosis, listeriosis, pneumocystosis and tuberculosis have been reported with TNF-blockers. Patients have frequently presented with disseminated rather than localized disease.

Treatment with RENFLEXIS should not be initiated in patients with an active infection, including clinically important localized infections. Patients greater than 65 years of age, patients with co-morbid conditions and/or patients taking concomitant immunosuppressants such as corticosteroids or methotrexate may be at greater risk of infection. The risks and benefits of treatment should be considered prior to initiating therapy in patients:

  • with chronic or recurrent infection
  • who have been exposed to tuberculosis
  • with a history of an opportunistic infection
  • who have resided or traveled in areas of endemic tuberculosis or endemic mycoses, such as histoplasmosis, coccidioidomycosis, or blastomycosis; or
  • with underlying conditions that may predispose them to infection.

Tuberculosis

Cases of reactivation of tuberculosis or new tuberculosis infections have been observed in patients receiving infliximab products, including patients who have previously received treatment for latent or active tuberculosis. Cases of active tuberculosis have also occurred in patients being treated with infliximab products during treatment for latent tuberculosis.

Patients should be evaluated for tuberculosis risk factors and tested for latent infection prior to initiating RENFLEXIS and periodically during therapy. Treatment of latent tuberculosis infection prior to therapy with TNF blocking agents has been shown to reduce the risk of tuberculosis reactivation during therapy. Induration of 5 mm or greater with tuberculin skin testing should be considered a positive test result when assessing if treatment for latent tuberculosis is needed prior to initiating RENFLEXIS, even for patients previously vaccinated with Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG).

Anti-tuberculosis therapy should also be considered prior to initiation of RENFLEXIS in patients with a past history of latent or active tuberculosis in whom an adequate course of treatment cannot be confirmed, and for patients with a negative test for latent tuberculosis but having risk factors for tuberculosis infection. Consultation with a physician with expertise in the treatment of tuberculosis is recommended to aid in the decision whether initiating anti-tuberculosis therapy is appropriate for an individual patient.

Tuberculosis should be strongly considered in patients who develop a new infection during RENFLEXIS treatment, especially in patients who have previously or recently traveled to countries with a high prevalence of tuberculosis, or who have had close contact with a person with active tuberculosis.

Monitoring

Patients should be closely monitored for the development of signs and symptoms of infection during and after treatment with RENFLEXIS, including the development of tuberculosis in patients who tested negative for latent tuberculosis infection prior to initiating therapy. Tests for latent tuberculosis infection may also be falsely negative while on therapy with RENFLEXIS.

RENFLEXIS should be discontinued if a patient develops a serious infection or sepsis. A patient who develops a new infection during treatment with RENFLEXIS should be closely monitored, undergo a prompt and complete diagnostic workup appropriate for an immunocompromised patient, and appropriate antimicrobial therapy should be initiated.

Invasive Fungal Infections

For patients who reside or travel in regions where mycoses are endemic, invasive fungal infection should be suspected if they develop a serious systemic illness. Appropriate empiric antifungal therapy should be considered while a diagnostic workup is being performed. Antigen and antibody testing for histoplasmosis may be negative in some patients with active infection. When feasible, the decision to administer empiric antifungal therapy in these patients should be made in consultation with a physician with expertise in the diagnosis and treatment of invasive fungal infections and should take into account both the risk for severe fungal infection and the risks of antifungal therapy.

Malignancies

Malignancies, some fatal, have been reported among children, adolescents and young adults who received treatment with TNF-blocking agents (initiation of therapy ≤ 18 years of age), including infliximab products. Approximately half of these cases were lymphomas, including Hodgkin’s and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. The other cases represented a variety of malignancies, including rare malignancies that are usually associated with immunosuppression and malignancies that are not usually observed in children and adolescents. The malignancies occurred after a median of 30 months (range 1 to 84 months) after the first dose of TNF blocker therapy. Most of the patients were receiving concomitant immunosuppressants. These cases were reported post-marketing and are derived from a variety of sources, including registries and spontaneous postmarketing reports.

Lymphomas

In the controlled portions of clinical trials of all the TNF-blocking agents, more cases of lymphoma have been observed among patients receiving a TNF blocker compared with control patients. In the controlled and open-label portions of infliximab clinical trials, 5 patients developed lymphomas among 5707 patients treated with infliximab (median duration of follow-up 1.0 years) vs. 0 lymphomas in 1600 control patients (median duration of follow-up 0.4 years). In rheumatoid arthritis patients, 2 lymphomas were observed for a rate of 0.08 cases per 100 patient-years of follow-up, which is approximately three-fold higher than expected in the general population. In the combined clinical trial population for rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn’s disease, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, ulcerative colitis, and plaque psoriasis, 5 lymphomas were observed for a rate of 0.10 cases per 100 patient-years of follow-up, which is approximately four-fold higher than expected in the general population. Patients with Crohn’s disease, rheumatoid arthritis or plaque psoriasis, particularly patients with highly active disease and/or chronic exposure to immunosuppressant therapies, may be at a higher risk (up to several fold) than the general population for the development of lymphoma, even in the absence of TNF-blocking therapy. Cases of acute and chronic leukemia have been reported with postmarketing TNF-blocker use in rheumatoid arthritis and other indications. Even in the absence of TNF blocker therapy, patients with rheumatoid arthritis may be at a higher risk (approximately 2-fold) than the general population for the development of leukemia.

Hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma (HSTCL)

Postmarketing cases of hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma (HSTCL), a rare type of T-cell lymphoma, have been reported in patients treated with TNF blockers including infliximab products. These cases have had a very aggressive disease course and have been fatal. Almost all patients had received treatment with the immunosuppressants azathioprine or 6-mercaptopurine concomitantly with a TNF-blocker at or prior to diagnosis. The majority of reported cases have occurred in patients with Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis and most were in adolescent and young adult males. It is uncertain whether the occurrence of HSTCL is related to TNF-blockers or TNF-blockers in combination with these other immunosuppressants. When treating patients, consideration of whether to use RENFLEXIS alone or in combination with other immunosuppressants such as azathioprine or 6-mercaptopurine should take into account a possibility that there is a higher risk of HSTCL with combination therapy versus an observed increased risk of immunogenicity and hypersensitivity reactions with infliximab product monotherapy from the clinical trial data from studies with infliximab [see Warnings and Precautions and Adverse Reactions].

Skin cancer

Melanoma and Merkel cell carcinoma have been reported in patients treated with TNF blocker therapy, including infliximab products [see Adverse Reactions]. Periodic skin examination is recommended for all patients, particularly those with risk factors for skin cancer.

Other Malignancies

In the controlled portions of clinical trials of some TNF-blocking agents including infliximab products, more malignancies (excluding lymphoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer [NMSC]) have been observed in patients receiving those TNF-blockers compared with control patients. During the controlled portions of infliximab trials in patients with moderately to severely active rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn’s disease, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, ulcerative colitis, and plaque psoriasis, 14 patients were diagnosed with malignancies (excluding lymphoma and NMSC) among 4019 infliximab-treated patients vs. 1 among 1597 control patients (at a rate of 0.52/100 patient-years among infliximab-treated patients vs. a rate of 0.11/100 patient-years among control patients), with median duration of follow-up 0.5 years for infliximab-treated patients and 0.4 years for control patients. Of these, the most common malignancies were breast, colorectal, and melanoma. The rate of malignancies among infliximab-treated patients was similar to that expected in the general population whereas the rate in control patients was lower than expected.

In a clinical trial exploring the use of infliximab in patients with moderate to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), more malignancies, the majority of lung or head and neck origin, were reported in infliximab-treated patients compared with control patients. All patients had a history of heavy smoking [see Adverse Reactions]. Prescribers should exercise caution when considering the use of RENFLEXIS in patients with moderate to severe COPD.

Psoriasis patients should be monitored for nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSCs), particularly those patients who have had prior prolonged phototherapy treatment. In the maintenance portion of clinical trials for infliximab, NMSCs were more common in patients with previous phototherapy [see Adverse Reactions].

The potential role of TNF-blocking therapy in the development of malignancies is not known [see Adverse Reactions]. Rates in clinical trials for infliximab cannot be compared to rates in clinical trials of other TNF-blockers and may not predict rates observed in a broader patient population. Caution should be exercised in considering RENFLEXIS treatment in patients with a history of malignancy or in continuing treatment in patients who develop malignancy while receiving RENFLEXIS.

Hepatitis B Virus Reactivation

Use of TNF blockers, including infliximab products, has been associated with reactivation of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in patients who are chronic carriers of this virus. In some instances, HBV reactivation occurring in conjunction with TNF blocker therapy has been fatal. The majority of these reports have occurred in patients concomitantly receiving other medications that suppress the immune system, which may also contribute to HBV reactivation. Patients should be tested for HBV infection before initiating TNF blocker therapy, including RENFLEXIS. For patients who test positive for hepatitis B surface antigen, consultation with a physician with expertise in the treatment of hepatitis B is recommended. Adequate data are not available on the safety or efficacy of treating patients who are carriers of HBV with anti-viral therapy in conjunction with TNF blocker therapy to prevent HBV reactivation. Patients who are carriers of HBV and require treatment with TNF blockers should be closely monitored for clinical and laboratory signs of active HBV infection throughout therapy and for several months following termination of therapy. In patients who develop HBV reactivation, TNF blockers should be stopped and antiviral therapy with appropriate supportive treatment should be initiated. The safety of resuming TNF blocker therapy after HBV reactivation is controlled is not known. Therefore, prescribers should exercise caution when considering resumption of TNF blocker therapy in this situation and monitor patients closely.

Hepatotoxicity

Severe hepatic reactions, including acute liver failure, jaundice, hepatitis and cholestasis, have been reported rarely in postmarketing data in patients receiving infliximab products. Autoimmune hepatitis has been diagnosed in some of these cases. Severe hepatic reactions occurred between 2 weeks to more than 1 year after initiation of infliximab; elevations in hepatic aminotransferase levels were not noted prior to discovery of the liver injury in many of these cases. Some of these cases were fatal or necessitated liver transplantation. Patients with symptoms or signs of liver dysfunction should be evaluated for evidence of liver injury. If jaundice and/or marked liver enzyme elevations (e.g., ≥ 5 times the upper limit of normal) develop, RENFLEXIS should be discontinued, and a thorough investigation of the abnormality should be undertaken. In clinical trials, mild or moderate elevations of ALT and AST have been observed in patients receiving infliximab products without progression to severe hepatic injury [see Adverse Reactions].

Patients with Heart Failure

Infliximab products have been associated with adverse outcomes in patients with heart failure, and should be used in patients with heart failure only after consideration of other treatment options. The results of a randomized study evaluating the use of infliximab in patients with heart failure (NYHA Functional Class III/IV) suggested higher mortality in patients who received 10 mg/kg infliximab, and higher rates of cardiovascular adverse events at doses of 5 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg. There have been post-marketing reports of worsening heart failure, with and without identifiable precipitating factors, in patients taking infliximab. There have also been rare post-marketing reports of new onset heart failure, including heart failure in patients without known pre-existing cardiovascular disease. Some of these patients have been under 50 years of age. If a decision is made to administer RENFLEXIS to patients with heart failure, they should be closely monitored during therapy, and RENFLEXIS should be discontinued if new or worsening symptoms of heart failure appear [see Contraindications and Adverse Reactions].

Hematologic Reactions

Cases of leukopenia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and pancytopenia, some with a fatal outcome, have been reported in patients receiving infliximab products. The causal relationship to infliximab product therapy remains unclear. Although no high-risk group(s) has been identified, caution should be exercised in patients being treated with RENFLEXIS who have ongoing or a history of significant hematologic abnormalities. All patients should be advised to seek immediate medical attention if they develop signs and symptoms suggestive of blood dyscrasias or infection (e.g., persistent fever) while on RENFLEXIS. Discontinuation of RENFLEXIS therapy should be considered in patients who develop significant hematologic abnormalities.

Hypersensitivity

Infliximab products have been associated with hypersensitivity reactions that vary in their time of onset and required hospitalization in some cases. Most hypersensitivity reactions, which include urticaria, dyspnea, and/or hypotension, have occurred during or within 2 hours of infusion.

However, in some cases, serum sickness-like reactions have been observed in patients after initial therapy with infliximab products (i.e., as early as after the second dose), and when therapy with infliximab products was reinstituted following an extended period without treatment. Symptoms associated with these reactions include fever, rash, headache, sore throat, myalgias, polyarthralgias, hand and facial edema and/or dysphagia. These reactions were associated with a marked increase in antibodies to infliximab products, loss of detectable serum concentrations of infliximab products and possible loss of drug efficacy.

RENFLEXIS should be discontinued for severe hypersensitivity reactions. Medications for the treatment of hypersensitivity reactions (e.g., acetaminophen, antihistamines, corticosteroids and/or epinephrine) should be available for immediate use in the event of a reaction [see Adverse Reactions].

In rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn’s disease and psoriasis clinical trials, re-administration of infliximab after a period of no treatment resulted in a higher incidence of infusion reactions relative to regular maintenance treatment [see Adverse Reactions]. In general, the benefit-risk of re-administration of RENFLEXIS after a period of no-treatment, especially as a re-induction regimen given at weeks 0, 2 and 6, should be carefully considered. In the case where RENFLEXIS maintenance therapy for psoriasis is interrupted, RENFLEXIS should be reinitiated as a single dose followed by maintenance therapy.

Neurologic Reactions

Agents that inhibit TNF have been associated in rare cases with CNS manifestation of systemic vasculitis, seizure and new onset or exacerbation of clinical symptoms and/or radiographic evidence of central nervous system demyelinating disorders, including multiple sclerosis and optic neuritis, and peripheral demyelinating disorders, including Guillain-Barré syndrome. Prescribers should exercise caution in considering the use of RENFLEXIS in patients with these neurologic disorders and should consider discontinuation of RENFLEXIS if these disorders develop.

Use with Anakinra

Serious infections and neutropenia were seen in clinical studies with concurrent use of anakinra and another TNFα-blocking agent, etanercept, with no added clinical benefit compared to etanercept alone. Because of the nature of the adverse reactions seen with the combination of etanercept and anakinra therapy, similar toxicities may also result from the combination of anakinra and other TNFα-blocking agents. Therefore, the combination of RENFLEXIS and anakinra is not recommended.

Use with Abatacept

In clinical studies, concurrent administration of TNF-blocking agents and abatacept have been associated with an increased risk of infections including serious infections compared with TNF-blocking agents alone, without increased clinical benefit. Therefore, the combination of RENFLEXIS and abatacept is not recommended [see Drug Interactions].

Concurrent Administration with other Biological Therapeutics

There is insufficient information regarding the concomitant use of infliximab products with other biological therapeutics used to treat the same conditions as RENFLEXIS. The concomitant use of RENFLEXIS with these biologics is not recommended because of the possibility of an increased risk of infection [see Drug Interactions].

Switching between Biological Disease-Modifying Antirheumatic Drugs (DMARDs)

Care should be taken when switching from one biologic to another, since overlapping biological activity may further increase the risk of infection.

Autoimmunity

Treatment with infliximab products may result in the formation of autoantibodies and, rarely, in the development of a lupus-like syndrome. If a patient develops symptoms suggestive of a lupus-like syndrome following treatment with RENFLEXIS, treatment should be discontinued [see Adverse Reactions].

Live Vaccines/Therapeutic Infectious Agents

In patients receiving anti-TNF therapy, limited data are available on the response to vaccination with live vaccines or on the secondary transmission of infection by live vaccines. Use of live vaccines can result in clinical infections, including disseminated infections. The concurrent administration of live vaccines with RENFLEXIS is not recommended.

Fatal outcome due to disseminated BCG infection has been reported in an infant who received a BCG vaccine after in utero exposure to infliximab products. Infliximab products are known to cross the placenta and have been detected up to 6 months following birth. At least a six month waiting period following birth is recommended before the administration of any live vaccine to infants exposed in utero to infliximab products.

Other uses of therapeutic infectious agents such as live attenuated bacteria (e.g., BCG bladder instillation for the treatment of cancer) could result in clinical infections, including disseminated infections. It is recommended that therapeutic infectious agents not be given concurrently with RENFLEXIS.

It is recommended that all pediatric patients be brought up to date with all vaccinations prior to initiating RENFLEXIS therapy. The interval between vaccination and initiation of RENFLEXIS therapy should be in accordance with current vaccination guidelines.

ADVERSE REACTIONS

In clinical trials with infliximab products, the most common adverse reactions occurring in >10% of patients treated with infliximab products included infections (eg, upper respiratory, sinusitis, and pharyngitis), infusion-related reactions, headache, and abdominal pain.

DRUG INTERACTIONS

Use with Anakinra or Abatacept

An increased risk of serious infections was seen in clinical studies of other TNFα-blocking agents used in combination with anakinra or abatacept, with no added clinical benefit. Because of the nature of the adverse reactions seen with these combinations with TNF-blocker therapy, similar toxicities may also result from the combination of anakinra or abatacept with other TNFα-blocking agents. Therefore, the combination of RENFLEXIS and anakinra or abatacept is not recommended [see Warnings and Precautions].

Use with Tocilizumab

The use of tocilizumab in combination with biological DMARDs such as TNF antagonists, including RENFLEXIS, should be avoided because of the possibility of increased immunosuppression and increased risk of infection.

Use with Other Biological Therapeutics

The combination of RENFLEXIS with other biological therapeutics used to treat the same conditions as RENFLEXIS is not recommended [see Warnings and Precautions].

Methotrexate (MTX) and Other Concomitant Medications

Specific drug interaction studies, including interactions with MTX, have not been conducted. The majority of patients in rheumatoid arthritis or Crohn’s disease clinical studies received one or more concomitant medications. In rheumatoid arthritis, concomitant medications besides MTX were nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs), folic acid, corticosteroids and/or narcotics. Concomitant Crohn’s disease medications were antibiotics, antivirals, corticosteroids, 6-MP/AZA and aminosalicylates. In psoriatic arthritis clinical trials, concomitant medications included MTX in approximately half of the patients as well as NSAIDs, folic acid and corticosteroids. Concomitant MTX use may decrease the incidence of anti-drug antibody production and increase infliximab product concentrations.

Immunosuppressants

Patients with Crohn’s disease who received immunosuppressants tended to experience fewer infusion reactions compared to patients on no immunosuppressants [see Adverse Reactions]. Serum infliximab concentrations appeared to be unaffected by baseline use of medications for the treatment of Crohn’s disease including corticosteroids, antibiotics (metronidazole or ciprofloxacin) and aminosalicylates.

Cytochrome P450 Substrates

The formation of CYP450 enzymes may be suppressed by increased levels of cytokines (e.g., TNFα, IL-1, IL-6, IL-10, IFN) during chronic inflammation. Therefore, it is expected that for a molecule that antagonizes cytokine activity, such as infliximab products, the formation of CYP450 enzymes could be normalized. Upon initiation or discontinuation of RENFLEXIS in patients being treated with CYP450 substrates with a narrow therapeutic index, monitoring of the effect (e.g., warfarin) or drug concentration (e.g., cyclosporine or theophylline) is recommended and the individual dose of the drug product may be adjusted as needed.

Live Vaccines/Therapeutic Infectious Agents

It is recommended that live vaccines not be given concurrently with RENFLEXIS. It is also recommended that live vaccines not be given to infants after in utero exposure to infliximab products for at least 6 months following birth [see Warnings and Precautions].

It is recommended that therapeutic infectious agents not be given concurrently with RENFLEXIS [see Warnings and Precautions].

Before prescribing RENFLEXISTM (infliximab-abda), please read the Prescribing Information, including the Boxed Warning about serious infections and malignancies. The Medication Guide also is available.

Brands mentioned are the trademarks of their respective owners.

References: 1. American Thoracic Society, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Targeted tuberculin testing and treatment of latent tuberculosis infection. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2000;161:S221-S247. 2. See latest Centers for Disease Control guidelines and recommendations for tuberculosis testing in immunocompromised patients. http://www.cdc.gov/tb/publications/ltbi/diagnosis.htm. Updated November 26, 2014. Accessed June 2, 2017.

BIOS-1202492-0003 06/17

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Indications
  • Rheumatoid Arthritis

  • RENFLEXIS in combination with methotrexate (MTX) is indicated for reducing signs and symptoms, inhibiting the progression of structural damage, and improving physical function in patients with moderately to severely active rheumatoid arthritis (RA)
  • Psoriatic Arthritis

  • RENFLEXIS is indicated for reducing signs and symptoms of active arthritis, inhibiting the progression of structural damage, and improving physical function in patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA)
  • Ankylosing Spondylitis

  • RENFLEXIS is indicated for reducing signs and symptoms in patients with active ankylosing spondylitis (AS)
  • Crohn’s Disease

  • RENFLEXIS is indicated for reducing signs and symptoms and inducing and maintaining clinical remission in adult patients with moderately to severely active Crohn’s disease (CD) who have had an inadequate response to conventional therapy
  • RENFLEXIS is indicated for reducing the number of draining enterocutaneous and rectovaginal fistulas and maintaining fistula closure in adult patients with fistulizing CD
  • Pediatric Crohn’s Disease

  • RENFLEXIS is indicated for reducing signs and symptoms and inducing and maintaining clinical remission in pediatric patients 6 years of age or older with moderately to severely active CD who have had an inadequate response to conventional therapy
  • Ulcerative Colitis

  • RENFLEXIS is indicated for reducing signs and symptoms, inducing and maintaining clinical remission and mucosal healing, and eliminating corticosteroid use in adult patients with moderately to severely active ulcerative colitis (UC) who have had an inadequate response to conventional therapy
  • Plaque Psoriasis

  • RENFLEXIS is indicated for the treatment of adult patients with chronic severe (ie, extensive and/or disabling) plaque psoriasis who are candidates for systemic therapy and when other systemic therapies are medically less appropriate. RENFLEXIS should only be administered to patients who will be closely monitored and have regular follow-up visits with a physician [see Boxed Warnings, Warnings and Precautions].
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Selected Safety Information for RENFLEXISTM (infliximab-abda)

WARNING: SERIOUS INFECTIONS and MALIGNANCY

SERIOUS INFECTIONS

Patients treated with infliximab products are at increased risk for developing serious infections that may lead to hospitalization or death [see Warnings and Precautions and Adverse Reactions]. Most patients who developed these infections were taking concomitant immunosuppressants such as methotrexate or corticosteroids.

RENFLEXIS should be discontinued if a patient develops a serious infection or sepsis. Reported infections include:

  • Active tuberculosis, including reactivation of latent tuberculosis. Patients with tuberculosis have frequently presented with disseminated or extrapulmonary disease. Patients should be tested for latent tuberculosis before RENFLEXIS use and during therapy.1,2 Treatment for latent infection should be initiated prior to RENFLEXIS use.
  • Invasive fungal infections, including histoplasmosis, coccidioidomycosis, candidiasis, aspergillosis, blastomycosis, and pneumocystosis. Patients with histoplasmosis or other invasive fungal infections may present with disseminated, rather than localized, disease. Antigen and antibody testing for histoplasmosis may be negative in some patients with active infection. Empiric anti-fungal therapy should be considered in patients at risk for invasive fungal infections who develop severe systemic illness.
  • Bacterial, viral and other infections due to opportunistic pathogens, including Legionella and Listeria.

The risks and benefits of treatment with RENFLEXIS should be carefully considered prior to initiating therapy in patients with chronic or recurrent infection.

Patients should be closely monitored for the development of signs and symptoms of infection during and after treatment with RENFLEXIS, including the possible development of tuberculosis in patients who tested negative for latent tuberculosis infection prior to initiating therapy.

MALIGNANCY

Lymphoma and other malignancies, some fatal, have been reported in children and adolescent patients treated with TNF blockers, including infliximab products [see Warnings and Precautions].

Postmarketing cases of hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma (HSTCL), a rare type of T-cell lymphoma, have been reported in patients treated with TNF blockers including infliximab products. These cases have had a very aggressive disease course and have been fatal. Almost all patients had received treatment with azathioprine or 6-mercaptopurine concomitantly with a TNF-blocker at or prior to diagnosis. The majority of reported cases have occurred in patients with Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis and most were in adolescent and young adult males.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

RENFLEXIS at doses > 5 mg/kg should not be administered to patients with moderate to severe heart failure. In a randomized study evaluating infliximab in patients with moderate to severe heart failure (New York Heart Association [NYHA] Functional Class III/IV), infliximab treatment at 10 mg/kg was associated with an increased incidence of death and hospitalization due to worsening heart failure.

RENFLEXIS should not be re-administered to patients who have experienced a severe hypersensitivity reaction to infliximab products. Additionally, RENFLEXIS should not be administered to patients with known hypersensitivity to inactive components of the product or to any murine proteins.

WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

Serious Infections

Patients treated with infliximab products are at increased risk for developing serious infections involving various organ systems and sites that may lead to hospitalization or death.

Opportunistic infections due to bacterial, mycobacterial, invasive fungal, viral, or parasitic organisms including aspergillosis, blastomycosis, candidiasis, coccidioidomycosis, histoplasmosis, legionellosis, listeriosis, pneumocystosis and tuberculosis have been reported with TNF-blockers. Patients have frequently presented with disseminated rather than localized disease.

Treatment with RENFLEXIS should not be initiated in patients with an active infection, including clinically important localized infections. Patients greater than 65 years of age, patients with co-morbid conditions and/or patients taking concomitant immunosuppressants such as corticosteroids or methotrexate may be at greater risk of infection. The risks and benefits of treatment should be considered prior to initiating therapy in patients:

  • with chronic or recurrent infection
  • who have been exposed to tuberculosis
  • with a history of an opportunistic infection
  • who have resided or traveled in areas of endemic tuberculosis or endemic mycoses, such as histoplasmosis, coccidioidomycosis, or blastomycosis; or
  • with underlying conditions that may predispose them to infection.

Tuberculosis

Cases of reactivation of tuberculosis or new tuberculosis infections have been observed in patients receiving infliximab products, including patients who have previously received treatment for latent or active tuberculosis. Cases of active tuberculosis have also occurred in patients being treated with infliximab products during treatment for latent tuberculosis.

Patients should be evaluated for tuberculosis risk factors and tested for latent infection prior to initiating RENFLEXIS and periodically during therapy. Treatment of latent tuberculosis infection prior to therapy with TNF blocking agents has been shown to reduce the risk of tuberculosis reactivation during therapy. Induration of 5 mm or greater with tuberculin skin testing should be considered a positive test result when assessing if treatment for latent tuberculosis is needed prior to initiating RENFLEXIS, even for patients previously vaccinated with Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG).

Anti-tuberculosis therapy should also be considered prior to initiation of RENFLEXIS in patients with a past history of latent or active tuberculosis in whom an adequate course of treatment cannot be confirmed, and for patients with a negative test for latent tuberculosis but having risk factors for tuberculosis infection. Consultation with a physician with expertise in the treatment of tuberculosis is recommended to aid in the decision whether initiating anti-tuberculosis therapy is appropriate for an individual patient.

Tuberculosis should be strongly considered in patients who develop a new infection during RENFLEXIS treatment, especially in patients who have previously or recently traveled to countries with a high prevalence of tuberculosis, or who have had close contact with a person with active tuberculosis.

Monitoring

Patients should be closely monitored for the development of signs and symptoms of infection during and after treatment with RENFLEXIS, including the development of tuberculosis in patients who tested negative for latent tuberculosis infection prior to initiating therapy. Tests for latent tuberculosis infection may also be falsely negative while on therapy with RENFLEXIS.

RENFLEXIS should be discontinued if a patient develops a serious infection or sepsis. A patient who develops a new infection during treatment with RENFLEXIS should be closely monitored, undergo a prompt and complete diagnostic workup appropriate for an immunocompromised patient, and appropriate antimicrobial therapy should be initiated.

Invasive Fungal Infections

For patients who reside or travel in regions where mycoses are endemic, invasive fungal infection should be suspected if they develop a serious systemic illness. Appropriate empiric antifungal therapy should be considered while a diagnostic workup is being performed. Antigen and antibody testing for histoplasmosis may be negative in some patients with active infection. When feasible, the decision to administer empiric antifungal therapy in these patients should be made in consultation with a physician with expertise in the diagnosis and treatment of invasive fungal infections and should take into account both the risk for severe fungal infection and the risks of antifungal therapy.

Malignancies

Malignancies, some fatal, have been reported among children, adolescents and young adults who received treatment with TNF-blocking agents (initiation of therapy ≤ 18 years of age), including infliximab products. Approximately half of these cases were lymphomas, including Hodgkin’s and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. The other cases represented a variety of malignancies, including rare malignancies that are usually associated with immunosuppression and malignancies that are not usually observed in children and adolescents. The malignancies occurred after a median of 30 months (range 1 to 84 months) after the first dose of TNF blocker therapy. Most of the patients were receiving concomitant immunosuppressants. These cases were reported post-marketing and are derived from a variety of sources, including registries and spontaneous postmarketing reports.

Lymphomas

In the controlled portions of clinical trials of all the TNF-blocking agents, more cases of lymphoma have been observed among patients receiving a TNF blocker compared with control patients. In the controlled and open-label portions of infliximab clinical trials, 5 patients developed lymphomas among 5707 patients treated with infliximab (median duration of follow-up 1.0 years) vs. 0 lymphomas in 1600 control patients (median duration of follow-up 0.4 years). In rheumatoid arthritis patients, 2 lymphomas were observed for a rate of 0.08 cases per 100 patient-years of follow-up, which is approximately three-fold higher than expected in the general population. In the combined clinical trial population for rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn’s disease, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, ulcerative colitis, and plaque psoriasis, 5 lymphomas were observed for a rate of 0.10 cases per 100 patient-years of follow-up, which is approximately four-fold higher than expected in the general population. Patients with Crohn’s disease, rheumatoid arthritis or plaque psoriasis, particularly patients with highly active disease and/or chronic exposure to immunosuppressant therapies, may be at a higher risk (up to several fold) than the general population for the development of lymphoma, even in the absence of TNF-blocking therapy. Cases of acute and chronic leukemia have been reported with postmarketing TNF-blocker use in rheumatoid arthritis and other indications. Even in the absence of TNF blocker therapy, patients with rheumatoid arthritis may be at a higher risk (approximately 2-fold) than the general population for the development of leukemia.

Hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma (HSTCL)

Postmarketing cases of hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma (HSTCL), a rare type of T-cell lymphoma, have been reported in patients treated with TNF blockers including infliximab products. These cases have had a very aggressive disease course and have been fatal. Almost all patients had received treatment with the immunosuppressants azathioprine or 6-mercaptopurine concomitantly with a TNF-blocker at or prior to diagnosis. The majority of reported cases have occurred in patients with Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis and most were in adolescent and young adult males. It is uncertain whether the occurrence of HSTCL is related to TNF-blockers or TNF-blockers in combination with these other immunosuppressants. When treating patients, consideration of whether to use RENFLEXIS alone or in combination with other immunosuppressants such as azathioprine or 6-mercaptopurine should take into account a possibility that there is a higher risk of HSTCL with combination therapy versus an observed increased risk of immunogenicity and hypersensitivity reactions with infliximab product monotherapy from the clinical trial data from studies with infliximab [see Warnings and Precautions and Adverse Reactions].

Skin cancer

Melanoma and Merkel cell carcinoma have been reported in patients treated with TNF blocker therapy, including infliximab products [see Adverse Reactions]. Periodic skin examination is recommended for all patients, particularly those with risk factors for skin cancer.

Other Malignancies

In the controlled portions of clinical trials of some TNF-blocking agents including infliximab products, more malignancies (excluding lymphoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer [NMSC]) have been observed in patients receiving those TNF-blockers compared with control patients. During the controlled portions of infliximab trials in patients with moderately to severely active rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn’s disease, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, ulcerative colitis, and plaque psoriasis, 14 patients were diagnosed with malignancies (excluding lymphoma and NMSC) among 4019 infliximab-treated patients vs. 1 among 1597 control patients (at a rate of 0.52/100 patient-years among infliximab-treated patients vs. a rate of 0.11/100 patient-years among control patients), with median duration of follow-up 0.5 years for infliximab-treated patients and 0.4 years for control patients. Of these, the most common malignancies were breast, colorectal, and melanoma. The rate of malignancies among infliximab-treated patients was similar to that expected in the general population whereas the rate in control patients was lower than expected.

In a clinical trial exploring the use of infliximab in patients with moderate to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), more malignancies, the majority of lung or head and neck origin, were reported in infliximab-treated patients compared with control patients. All patients had a history of heavy smoking [see Adverse Reactions]. Prescribers should exercise caution when considering the use of RENFLEXIS in patients with moderate to severe COPD.

Psoriasis patients should be monitored for nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSCs), particularly those patients who have had prior prolonged phototherapy treatment. In the maintenance portion of clinical trials for infliximab, NMSCs were more common in patients with previous phototherapy [see Adverse Reactions].

The potential role of TNF-blocking therapy in the development of malignancies is not known [see Adverse Reactions]. Rates in clinical trials for infliximab cannot be compared to rates in clinical trials of other TNF-blockers and may not predict rates observed in a broader patient population. Caution should be exercised in considering RENFLEXIS treatment in patients with a history of malignancy or in continuing treatment in patients who develop malignancy while receiving RENFLEXIS.

Hepatitis B Virus Reactivation

Use of TNF blockers, including infliximab products, has been associated with reactivation of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in patients who are chronic carriers of this virus. In some instances, HBV reactivation occurring in conjunction with TNF blocker therapy has been fatal. The majority of these reports have occurred in patients concomitantly receiving other medications that suppress the immune system, which may also contribute to HBV reactivation. Patients should be tested for HBV infection before initiating TNF blocker therapy, including RENFLEXIS. For patients who test positive for hepatitis B surface antigen, consultation with a physician with expertise in the treatment of hepatitis B is recommended. Adequate data are not available on the safety or efficacy of treating patients who are carriers of HBV with anti-viral therapy in conjunction with TNF blocker therapy to prevent HBV reactivation. Patients who are carriers of HBV and require treatment with TNF blockers should be closely monitored for clinical and laboratory signs of active HBV infection throughout therapy and for several months following termination of therapy. In patients who develop HBV reactivation, TNF blockers should be stopped and antiviral therapy with appropriate supportive treatment should be initiated. The safety of resuming TNF blocker therapy after HBV reactivation is controlled is not known. Therefore, prescribers should exercise caution when considering resumption of TNF blocker therapy in this situation and monitor patients closely.

Hepatotoxicity

Severe hepatic reactions, including acute liver failure, jaundice, hepatitis and cholestasis, have been reported rarely in postmarketing data in patients receiving infliximab products. Autoimmune hepatitis has been diagnosed in some of these cases. Severe hepatic reactions occurred between 2 weeks to more than 1 year after initiation of infliximab; elevations in hepatic aminotransferase levels were not noted prior to discovery of the liver injury in many of these cases. Some of these cases were fatal or necessitated liver transplantation. Patients with symptoms or signs of liver dysfunction should be evaluated for evidence of liver injury. If jaundice and/or marked liver enzyme elevations (e.g., ≥ 5 times the upper limit of normal) develop, RENFLEXIS should be discontinued, and a thorough investigation of the abnormality should be undertaken. In clinical trials, mild or moderate elevations of ALT and AST have been observed in patients receiving infliximab products without progression to severe hepatic injury [see Adverse Reactions].

Patients with Heart Failure

Infliximab products have been associated with adverse outcomes in patients with heart failure, and should be used in patients with heart failure only after consideration of other treatment options. The results of a randomized study evaluating the use of infliximab in patients with heart failure (NYHA Functional Class III/IV) suggested higher mortality in patients who received 10 mg/kg infliximab, and higher rates of cardiovascular adverse events at doses of 5 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg. There have been post-marketing reports of worsening heart failure, with and without identifiable precipitating factors, in patients taking infliximab. There have also been rare post-marketing reports of new onset heart failure, including heart failure in patients without known pre-existing cardiovascular disease. Some of these patients have been under 50 years of age. If a decision is made to administer RENFLEXIS to patients with heart failure, they should be closely monitored during therapy, and RENFLEXIS should be discontinued if new or worsening symptoms of heart failure appear [see Contraindications and Adverse Reactions].

Hematologic Reactions

Cases of leukopenia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and pancytopenia, some with a fatal outcome, have been reported in patients receiving infliximab products. The causal relationship to infliximab product therapy remains unclear. Although no high-risk group(s) has been identified, caution should be exercised in patients being treated with RENFLEXIS who have ongoing or a history of significant hematologic abnormalities. All patients should be advised to seek immediate medical attention if they develop signs and symptoms suggestive of blood dyscrasias or infection (e.g., persistent fever) while on RENFLEXIS. Discontinuation of RENFLEXIS therapy should be considered in patients who develop significant hematologic abnormalities.

Hypersensitivity

Infliximab products have been associated with hypersensitivity reactions that vary in their time of onset and required hospitalization in some cases. Most hypersensitivity reactions, which include urticaria, dyspnea, and/or hypotension, have occurred during or within 2 hours of infusion.

However, in some cases, serum sickness-like reactions have been observed in patients after initial therapy with infliximab products (i.e., as early as after the second dose), and when therapy with infliximab products was reinstituted following an extended period without treatment. Symptoms associated with these reactions include fever, rash, headache, sore throat, myalgias, polyarthralgias, hand and facial edema and/or dysphagia. These reactions were associated with a marked increase in antibodies to infliximab products, loss of detectable serum concentrations of infliximab products and possible loss of drug efficacy.

RENFLEXIS should be discontinued for severe hypersensitivity reactions. Medications for the treatment of hypersensitivity reactions (e.g., acetaminophen, antihistamines, corticosteroids and/or epinephrine) should be available for immediate use in the event of a reaction [see Adverse Reactions].

In rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn’s disease and psoriasis clinical trials, re-administration of infliximab after a period of no treatment resulted in a higher incidence of infusion reactions relative to regular maintenance treatment [see Adverse Reactions]. In general, the benefit-risk of re-administration of RENFLEXIS after a period of no-treatment, especially as a re-induction regimen given at weeks 0, 2 and 6, should be carefully considered. In the case where RENFLEXIS maintenance therapy for psoriasis is interrupted, RENFLEXIS should be reinitiated as a single dose followed by maintenance therapy.

Neurologic Reactions

Agents that inhibit TNF have been associated in rare cases with CNS manifestation of systemic vasculitis, seizure and new onset or exacerbation of clinical symptoms and/or radiographic evidence of central nervous system demyelinating disorders, including multiple sclerosis and optic neuritis, and peripheral demyelinating disorders, including Guillain-Barré syndrome. Prescribers should exercise caution in considering the use of RENFLEXIS in patients with these neurologic disorders and should consider discontinuation of RENFLEXIS if these disorders develop.

Use with Anakinra

Serious infections and neutropenia were seen in clinical studies with concurrent use of anakinra and another TNFα-blocking agent, etanercept, with no added clinical benefit compared to etanercept alone. Because of the nature of the adverse reactions seen with the combination of etanercept and anakinra therapy, similar toxicities may also result from the combination of anakinra and other TNFα-blocking agents. Therefore, the combination of RENFLEXIS and anakinra is not recommended.

Use with Abatacept

In clinical studies, concurrent administration of TNF-blocking agents and abatacept have been associated with an increased risk of infections including serious infections compared with TNF-blocking agents alone, without increased clinical benefit. Therefore, the combination of RENFLEXIS and abatacept is not recommended [see Drug Interactions].

Concurrent Administration with other Biological Therapeutics

There is insufficient information regarding the concomitant use of infliximab products with other biological therapeutics used to treat the same conditions as RENFLEXIS. The concomitant use of RENFLEXIS with these biologics is not recommended because of the possibility of an increased risk of infection [see Drug Interactions].

Switching between Biological Disease-Modifying Antirheumatic Drugs (DMARDs)

Care should be taken when switching from one biologic to another, since overlapping biological activity may further increase the risk of infection.

Autoimmunity

Treatment with infliximab products may result in the formation of autoantibodies and, rarely, in the development of a lupus-like syndrome. If a patient develops symptoms suggestive of a lupus-like syndrome following treatment with RENFLEXIS, treatment should be discontinued [see Adverse Reactions].

Live Vaccines/Therapeutic Infectious Agents

In patients receiving anti-TNF therapy, limited data are available on the response to vaccination with live vaccines or on the secondary transmission of infection by live vaccines. Use of live vaccines can result in clinical infections, including disseminated infections. The concurrent administration of live vaccines with RENFLEXIS is not recommended.

Fatal outcome due to disseminated BCG infection has been reported in an infant who received a BCG vaccine after in utero exposure to infliximab products. Infliximab products are known to cross the placenta and have been detected up to 6 months following birth. At least a six month waiting period following birth is recommended before the administration of any live vaccine to infants exposed in utero to infliximab products.

Other uses of therapeutic infectious agents such as live attenuated bacteria (e.g., BCG bladder instillation for the treatment of cancer) could result in clinical infections, including disseminated infections. It is recommended that therapeutic infectious agents not be given concurrently with RENFLEXIS.

It is recommended that all pediatric patients be brought up to date with all vaccinations prior to initiating RENFLEXIS therapy. The interval between vaccination and initiation of RENFLEXIS therapy should be in accordance with current vaccination guidelines.

ADVERSE REACTIONS

In clinical trials with infliximab products, the most common adverse reactions occurring in >10% of patients treated with infliximab products included infections (eg, upper respiratory, sinusitis, and pharyngitis), infusion-related reactions, headache, and abdominal pain.

DRUG INTERACTIONS

Use with Anakinra or Abatacept

An increased risk of serious infections was seen in clinical studies of other TNFα-blocking agents used in combination with anakinra or abatacept, with no added clinical benefit. Because of the nature of the adverse reactions seen with these combinations with TNF-blocker therapy, similar toxicities may also result from the combination of anakinra or abatacept with other TNFα-blocking agents. Therefore, the combination of RENFLEXIS and anakinra or abatacept is not recommended [see Warnings and Precautions].

Use with Tocilizumab

The use of tocilizumab in combination with biological DMARDs such as TNF antagonists, including RENFLEXIS, should be avoided because of the possibility of increased immunosuppression and increased risk of infection.

Use with Other Biological Therapeutics

The combination of RENFLEXIS with other biological therapeutics used to treat the same conditions as RENFLEXIS is not recommended [see Warnings and Precautions].

Methotrexate (MTX) and Other Concomitant Medications

Specific drug interaction studies, including interactions with MTX, have not been conducted. The majority of patients in rheumatoid arthritis or Crohn’s disease clinical studies received one or more concomitant medications. In rheumatoid arthritis, concomitant medications besides MTX were nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs), folic acid, corticosteroids and/or narcotics. Concomitant Crohn’s disease medications were antibiotics, antivirals, corticosteroids, 6-MP/AZA and aminosalicylates. In psoriatic arthritis clinical trials, concomitant medications included MTX in approximately half of the patients as well as NSAIDs, folic acid and corticosteroids. Concomitant MTX use may decrease the incidence of anti-drug antibody production and increase infliximab product concentrations.

Immunosuppressants

Patients with Crohn’s disease who received immunosuppressants tended to experience fewer infusion reactions compared to patients on no immunosuppressants [see Adverse Reactions]. Serum infliximab concentrations appeared to be unaffected by baseline use of medications for the treatment of Crohn’s disease including corticosteroids, antibiotics (metronidazole or ciprofloxacin) and aminosalicylates.

Cytochrome P450 Substrates

The formation of CYP450 enzymes may be suppressed by increased levels of cytokines (e.g., TNFα, IL-1, IL-6, IL-10, IFN) during chronic inflammation. Therefore, it is expected that for a molecule that antagonizes cytokine activity, such as infliximab products, the formation of CYP450 enzymes could be normalized. Upon initiation or discontinuation of RENFLEXIS in patients being treated with CYP450 substrates with a narrow therapeutic index, monitoring of the effect (e.g., warfarin) or drug concentration (e.g., cyclosporine or theophylline) is recommended and the individual dose of the drug product may be adjusted as needed.

Live Vaccines/Therapeutic Infectious Agents

It is recommended that live vaccines not be given concurrently with RENFLEXIS. It is also recommended that live vaccines not be given to infants after in utero exposure to infliximab products for at least 6 months following birth [see Warnings and Precautions].

It is recommended that therapeutic infectious agents not be given concurrently with RENFLEXIS [see Warnings and Precautions].

Before prescribing RENFLEXISTM (infliximab-abda), please read the Prescribing Information, including the Boxed Warning about serious infections and malignancies. The Medication Guide also is available.

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References: 1. American Thoracic Society, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Targeted tuberculin testing and treatment of latent tuberculosis infection. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2000;161:S221-S247. 2. See latest Centers for Disease Control guidelines and recommendations for tuberculosis testing in immunocompromised patients. http://www.cdc.gov/tb/publications/ltbi/diagnosis.htm. Updated November 26, 2014. Accessed June 2, 2017.