RECARBRIO

(imipenem, cilastatin, and relebactam) for injection 1.25 g

Mechanism of action

RECARBRIO™ (imipenem, cilastatin, and relebactam) is a combination of imipenem/cilastatin and relebactam. Imipenem is a penem antibacterial drug, cilastatin sodium is a renal dehydropeptidase inhibitor, and relebactam is a beta-lactamase inhibitor. Cilastatin limits the renal metabolism of imipenem and does not have antibacterial activity. The bactericidal activity of imipenem results from binding to PBP 2 and PBP 1B in Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the subsequent inhibition of penicillin binding proteins (PBPs). Inhibition of PBPs leads to the disruption of bacterial cell wall synthesis. Imipenem is stable in the presence of some beta-lactamases. Relebactam has no intrinsic antibacterial activity. Relebactam protects imipenem from degradation by certain serine beta-lactamases such as Sulfhydryl Variable (SHV), Temoneira (TEM), Cefotaximase-Munich (CTX-M), Enterobacter cloacae P99 (P99), Pseudomonas-derived cephalosporinase (PDC, AmpC-type), and Klebsiella-pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC).

Resistance

Clinical isolates may produce multiple beta-lactamases, express varying levels of beta-lactamases, have amino acid sequence variations, or have other resistance mechanisms that have not yet been identified. Culture and susceptibility information and local epidemiology should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy.

Mechanisms of beta lactam resistance in gram-negative organisms include the production of beta-lactamases, up-regulation of efflux pumps, and loss of outer membrane porins. Imipenem/relebactam retains activity in the presence of the tested efflux pumps. Imipenem/relebactam has shown activity against some isolates of P. aeruginosa and Enterobacteriaceae that produce relebactam-susceptible beta-lactamases concomitant with loss of entry porins. Imipenem/relebactam is not active against most isolates containing metallo-beta-lactamases (MBLs), some oxacillinases with carbapenemase activity, as well as certain alleles of GES.

Imipenem/relebactam demonstrated in vitro activity against some Enterobacteriaceae isolates genotypically characterized for some beta-lactamases and extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) of the following groups: KPC, TEM, SHV, CTX-M, CMY, DHA, and ACT/MIR. Many of the Enterobacteriaceae isolates that were not susceptible to imipenem-relebactam were genotypically characterized and the genes encoding MBLs or certain oxacillinases were present.

Imipenem/relebactam demonstrated in vitro activity against genotypically characterized P. aeruginosa isolates containing certain known resistance factors: some chromosomal PDC alleles with ESBLs, and some with loss of outer membrane porin (OprD) with or without co-expression of upregulated efflux pumps (MexAB, MexCD, MexJK, and MexXY). Genotypically characterized P. aeruginosa isolates that were not susceptible to imipenem/relebactam encoded some MBL, KPC, PER, GES, VEB, and PDC alleles.

Methicillin-resistant staphylococci should be considered resistant to imipenem. Imipenem is inactive in vitro against Enterococcus faecium, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, and some isolates of Burkholderia cepacia.

No cross-resistance with other classes of antimicrobials has been identified. Some isolates resistant to carbapenems (including imipenem) and to cephalosporins may be susceptible to RECARBRIO.

Interaction with other antimicrobials

In vitro studies have demonstrated no antagonism between imipenem/relebactam and amikacin, azithromycin, aztreonam, colistin, gentamicin, levofloxacin, linezolid, tigecycline, tobramycin, or vancomycin.

Activity against imipenem-nonsusceptible bacteria in animal infection models

Relebactam restored activity of imipenem/cilastatin in animal models of infection (e.g., mouse disseminated infection, mouse thigh infection, and mouse pulmonary infection) caused by imipenem-nonsusceptible KPC-producing Enterobacteriaceae and imipenem-nonsusceptible P. aeruginosa (imipenem-nonsusceptible due to production of chromosomal PDC and loss of OprD porin).

Antimicrobial activity

RECARBRIO has been shown to be active against most isolates of the following bacteria, both in vitro and in clinical infections.

Hospital-acquired Bacterial Pneumonia and Ventilator-associated Bacterial Pneumonia (HABP/VABP)

Aerobic Bacteria

Gram-negative Bacteria

  • Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-baumannii complex
  • Enterobacter cloacae
  • Escherichia coli
  • Haemophilus influenzae
  • Klebsiella aerogenes
  • Klebsiella oxytoca
  • Klebsiella pneumoniae
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa
  • Serratia marcescens

Complicated Urinary Tract Infections (cUTI)

Aerobic Bacteria

Gram-negative Bacteria

  • Klebsiella aerogenes
  • Enterobacter cloacae
  • Escherichia coli
  • Klebsiella pneumoniae
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Complicated Intra-abdominal Infections (cIAI)

Aerobic Bacteria

Gram-negative Bacteria

  • Citrobacter freundii
  • Klebsiella aerogenes
  • Enterobacter cloacae
  • Escherichia coli
  • Klebsiella oxytoca
  • Klebsiella pneumoniae
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Anaerobic Bacteria

Gram-negative Bacteria

  • Bacteroides caccae
  • Bacteroides fragilis
  • Bacteroides ovatus
  • Bacteroides stercoris
  • Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron
  • Bacteroides uniformis
  • Bacteroides vulgatus
  • Fusobacterium nucleatum
  • Parabacteroides distasonis

The following in vitro data are available, but their clinical significance is unknown. At least 90% of the following bacteria exhibit an in vitro MIC less than or equal to the susceptible breakpoint for RECARBRIO against isolates of similar genus or organism group. However, the efficacy of RECARBRIO in treating clinical infections due to these bacteria has not been established in adequate and well-controlled clinical trials.

Aerobic Bacteria

Gram-positive Bacteria

  • Enterococcus faecalis
  • Methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus
  • Streptococcus anginosus
  • Streptococcus constellatus
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae

Gram-negative Bacteria

  • Citrobacter koseri
  • Enterobacter asburiae

Anaerobic Bacteria

Gram-positive Bacteria

  • Eggerthella lenta
  • Parvimonas micra
  • Peptoniphilus harei
  • Peptostreptococcus anaerobius

Gram-negative Bacteria

  • Fusobacterium necrophorum
  • Fusobacterium varium
  • Parabacteroides goldsteinii
  • Parabacteroides merdae
  • Prevotella bivia
  • Veillonella parvula

Susceptibility test methods

For specific information regarding susceptibility testing methods, interpretive criteria, and associated test methods and quality control standards recognized by FDA for RECARBRIO, please see: www.fda.gov/STIC.

Indications

RECARBRIO is indicated for the treatment of patients 18 years of age and older with hospital-acquired bacterial pneumonia and ventilator-associated bacterial pneumonia (HABP/VABP), caused by the following susceptible gram-negative microorganisms: Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-baumannii complex, Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli, Haemophilus influenzae, Klebsiella aerogenes, Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Serratia marcescens.

RECARBRIO is indicated in patients 18 years of age and older who have limited or no alternative treatment options, for the treatment of complicated urinary tract infections (cUTI), including pyelonephritis, caused by the following susceptible gram-negative microorganisms: Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

RECARBRIO is indicated in patients 18 years of age and older who have limited or no alternative treatment options for the treatment of complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAI) caused by the following susceptible gram-negative microorganisms: Bacteroides caccae, Bacteroides fragilis, Bacteroides ovatus, Bacteroides stercoris, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, Bacteroides uniformis, Bacteroides vulgatus, Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Klebsiella aerogenes, Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Parabacteroides distasonis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Approval of the cUTI and cIAI indications is based on limited clinical safety and efficacy data for RECARBRIO.

Usage

To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of RECARBRIO and other antibacterial drugs, RECARBRIO should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.

Selected Safety Information

  • Hypersensitivity Reactions: RECARBRIO is contraindicated in patients with a history of known severe hypersensitivity (severe systemic allergic reaction such as anaphylaxis) to any component of RECARBRIO. Serious and occasionally fatal hypersensitivity (anaphylactic) reactions have been reported in patients receiving therapy with beta-lactams. Before initiating therapy with RECARBRIO, careful inquiry should be made concerning previous hypersensitivity reactions to carbapenems, penicillins, cephalosporins, other beta-lactams, and other allergens. If a hypersensitivity reaction to RECARBRIO occurs, discontinue the therapy immediately.
  • Seizures and Other Central Nervous System (CNS) Adverse Reactions: CNS adverse reactions, such as seizures, confusional states, and myoclonic activity, have been reported during treatment with imipenem/cilastatin, a component of RECARBRIO, especially when recommended dosages of imipenem were exceeded. These have been reported most commonly in patients with CNS disorders (eg, brain lesions or history of seizures) and/or compromised renal function.
  • Anticonvulsant therapy should be continued in patients with known seizure disorders. If CNS adverse reactions including seizures occur, patients should undergo a neurological evaluation to determine whether RECARBRIO should be discontinued.
  • Increased Seizure Potential Due to Interaction with Valproic Acid: Concomitant use of RECARBRIO, with valproic acid or divalproex sodium may increase the risk of breakthrough seizures. Avoid concomitant use of RECARBRIO with valproic acid or divalproex sodium or consider alternative antibacterial drugs other than carbapenems.
  • Clostridioides difficile–Associated Diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents, including RECARBRIO, and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. Careful medical history is necessary since CDAD has been reported to occur over two months after the administration of antibacterial agents. If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibacterial drug use not directed against C difficile may need to be discontinued.
  • Development of Drug-Resistant Bacteria: Prescribing RECARBRIO in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria.
  • Adverse Reactions: The most frequently reported adverse reactions occurring in ≥2% of cUTI and cIAI patients treated with RECARBRIO were diarrhea (6%), nausea (6%), headache (4%), vomiting (3%), alanine aminotransferase increased (3%), aspartate aminotransferase increased (3%), phlebitis/infusion site reactions (2%), pyrexia (2%), and hypertension (2%). The most frequently reported adverse reactions occurring in ≥5% of HABP/VABP patients treated with RECARBRIO were aspartate aminotransferase increased (11.7%), anemia (10.5%), alanine aminotransferase increased (9.8%), diarrhea (7.9%), hypokalemia (7.9%), and hyponatremia (6.4%).
US-TIX-0010609/20