ZERBAXA®

(ceftolozane and tazobactam) for injection (1.5 g), for intravenous use

Announcements

Efficacy

Complicated Urinary Tract Infections, Including Pyelonephritis

A total of 1068 adults hospitalized with cUTI (including pyelonephritis) were randomized and received study medications in a multinational, double-blind study comparing ZERBAXA 1.5 g (ceftolozane 1 g and tazobactam 0.5 g) intravenously every 8 hours to levofloxacin (750 mg intravenously once daily) for 7 days of therapy. The primary efficacy endpoint was defined as complete resolution or marked improvement of the clinical symptoms and microbiological eradication (all uropathogens found at baseline at ≥105 were reduced to <104 CFU/mL) at the test-of-cure (TOC) visit 7 (± 2) days after the last dose of study drug. The primary efficacy analysis population was the microbiologically modified intent-to-treat (mMITT) population, which included all patients who received study medication and had at least 1 baseline uropathogen. The key secondary efficacy endpoint was the composite microbiological and clinical cure response at the TOC visit in the microbiologically evaluable (ME) population, which included protocol-adherent mMITT patients with a urine culture at the TOC visit.

The mMITT population consisted of 800 patients with cUTI, including 656 (82%) with pyelonephritis. The median age was 50.5 years and 74% were female. Concomitant bacteremia was identified in 62 (7.8%) patients at baseline; 608 (76%) patients were enrolled in Eastern Europe and 14 (1.8%) patients were enrolled in the United States.

ZERBAXA demonstrated efficacy with regard to the composite endpoint of microbiological and clinical cure at the TOC visit in both the mMITT and ME populations (table below). Composite microbiological and clinical cure rates at the TOC visit by pathogen in the mMITT population are presented in the table below.

In the mMITT population, the composite cure rate in ZERBAXA-treated patients with concurrent bacteremia at baseline was 23/29 (79.3%).

Although a statistically significant difference was observed in the ZERBAXA arm compared to the levofloxacin arm with respect to the primary endpoint, it was likely attributable to the 212/800 (26.5%) patients with baseline organisms non-susceptible to levofloxacin. Among patients infected with a levofloxacin-susceptible organism at baseline, the response rates were similar (table below).

Composite Microbiological and Clinical Cure Rates in a Phase 3 Trial of Complicated Urinary Tract Infections

Analysis Population
ZERBAXAan/N (%) Levofloxacinbn/N (%) Treatment Difference (95% CI)c
mMITT 306/398 (76.9) 275/402 (68.4) 8.5 (2.3, 14.6)
Levofloxacin resistant baseline pathogen(s) 60/100 (60) 44/112 (39.3)
No levofloxacin resistant baseline pathogen(s) 246/298 (82.6) 231/290 (79.7)
ME 284/341 (83.3) 266/353 (75.4) 8.0 (2.0, 14.0)
  • (a) ZERBAXA 1.5 g intravenously every 8 hours
  • (b) 750 mg intravenously once daily
  • (c) The 95% confidence interval was based on the stratified Newcombe method.

Composite Microbiological and Clinical Cure Rates in a Phase 3 Trial of Complicated Urinary Tract Infections, in Subgroups Defined by Baseline Pathogen (mMITT Population)

Pathogen
ZERBAXA n/N (%) Meropenem n/N (%)
Escherichia coli 247/305 (81) 228/324 (70.4)
Klebsiella pneumoniae 22/33 (66.7) 12/25 (48)
Proteus mirabilis 11/12 (91.7) 6/12 (50)
Pseudomonas aeruginosa 6/8 (75) 7/15 (46.7)

In a subset of the E. coli and K. pneumoniae isolates from both arms of the cUTI Phase 3 trial that met pre-specified criteria for beta-lactam susceptibility, genotypic testing identified certain ESBL groups (e.g., TEM, SHV, CTX-M, OXA) in 104/687 (15%). Cure rates in this subset were similar to the overall trial results. In vitro susceptibility testing showed that some of these isolates were susceptible to ZERBAXA (MIC ≤2 mcg/mL), while some others were not susceptible (MIC >2 mcg/mL). Isolates of a specific genotype were seen in patients who were deemed to be either successes or failures.

Indications

ZERBAXA is indicated for the treatment of patients 18 years and older with hospital-acquired bacterial pneumonia and ventilator-associated bacterial pneumonia (HABP/VABP), caused by the following susceptible Gram-negative microorganisms: Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli, Haemophilus influenzae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Serratia marcescens.

ZERBAXA is indicated for the treatment of patients 18 years and older with complicated urinary tract infections (cUTI), including pyelonephritis, caused by the following susceptible Gram-negative microorganisms: Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

ZERBAXA used in combination with metronidazole is indicated for the treatment of patients 18 years and older with complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAI) caused by the following susceptible Gram-negative and Gram-positive microorganisms: Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacteroides fragilis, Streptococcus anginosus, Streptococcus constellatus, and Streptococcus salivarius.

Usage

To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of ZERBAXA and other antibacterial drugs, ZERBAXA should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.

Selected Safety Information

  • Patients with renal impairment: Decreased efficacy of ZERBAXA has been observed in patients with baseline CrCl of 30 to ≤ 50 mL/min. In a clinical trial, patients with cIAIs with CrCl > 50 mL/min had a clinical cure rate of 85.2% when treated with ZERBAXA plus metronidazole vs 87.9% when treated with meropenem. In the same trial, patients with CrCl 30 to ≤ 50 mL/min had a clinical cure rate of 47.8% when treated with ZERBAXA plus metronidazole vs 69.2% when treated with meropenem. A similar trend was also seen in the cUTI trial. Dose adjustment is required for patients with CrCl 50 mL/min or less. All doses of ZERBAXA are administered over 1 hour. Monitor CrCl at least daily in patients with changing renal function and adjust the dose of ZERBAXA accordingly.
  • Hypersensitivity: ZERBAXA is contraindicated in patients with known serious hypersensitivity to the components of ZERBAXA (ceftolozane/tazobactam), piperacillin/tazobactam, or other members of the beta-lactam class. Serious and occasionally fatal hypersensitivity (anaphylactic) reactions have been reported in patients receiving beta-lactam antibacterials. Before initiating therapy with ZERBAXA, make careful inquiry about previous hypersensitivity reactions to cephalosporins, penicillins, or other beta-lactams. If an anaphylactic reaction to ZERBAXA occurs, discontinue use and institute appropriate therapy.
  • Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD), ranging from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis, has been reported with nearly all systemic antibacterial agents, including ZERBAXA. Careful medical history is necessary because CDAD has been reported to occur more than 2 months after the administration of antibacterial agents. If CDAD is confirmed, antibacterial use not directed against C. difficile should be discontinued, if possible.
  • Development of drug-resistant bacteria: Prescribing ZERBAXA in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and risks the development of drug-resistant bacteria.
  • Adverse reactions: The most common adverse reactions occurring in ≥5% of patients in the HABP/VABP trial were hepatic transaminase increased (11.9%), renal impairment/renal failure (8.9%), and diarrhea (6.4%).
  • The most common adverse reactions occurring in ≥5% of patients in the cUTI and cIAI trials were headache (5.8%) in the cUTI trial, and nausea (7.9%), diarrhea (6.2%), and pyrexia (5.6%) in the cIAI trial.

Before prescribing ZERBAXA, please read the accompanying Prescribing Information.

US-ZER-0014107/19